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of the most important events
in the Greek Revolution (1821–1830)

In this album, the timeline of events follows the old calendar, which —with regard to the 19th century— is 12 days behind the new calendar.

Date Events
January 1821  
5 Hurshid Ahmed Pasha (Mora–vali–si) heads from the Peloponnese to Ioannina
6 T. Kolokotronis returns from the Ionian Islands to Morias
26-30 Vostitsa Assembly: Assembly of Peloponnesian senior clergymen and community leaders to discuss the start of the Revolution
30 Τhe Lefkada Conference
February 1821  
  The Vostitsa Assembly participants are invited to Tripolitsa by the Ottoman authorities
22 A. Ypsilantis crosses the Prut river and enters the Danubian Principalities (Moldo–Wallachia)
24 Start of the Revolution in Moldo–Wallachia
March 1821  
3 A. Ypsilantis establishes the Sacred Batallion in Foxani, Moldo–Wallachia
5 D. Makris attacks an Ottoman money transfer mission at Skala near Nafpaktos
10-17 Meetings held at Agia Lavra monastery under the chairmanship of Germanos III of Old Patras, discussing the start
of the Revolution
14 N. Christodoulou, or Soliotis, attacks Ottomans at Portes of Nonakrida
16 Attack by the Greeks on Ottomans forces in Arfara
16 (;) Attack on Livartzi, Kalavryta
16 Greeks attack Ottomans and N. Tampakopoulos, a Greek, at Chelonospilia, Klitoria
17 Armed conflict in Versova, Aigialeia
17 Bucharest is captured by A. Ypsilantis
17 Germanos III conducts a blessing at the monastery of Agia Lavra, swearing in the militants present to start the Revolution and praying for its successful outcomee
17 Greek militants under S. Charalampis and the Petmezas family besiege the Ottomans at Kalavryta
17 Revolutionaries from Mani decide “to take up arms against the Turks” in Areopolis, Lakonia
21 Liberation of Kalavryta by the Greeks revolutionaries
21 Start of the Revolution in Patras
22 A. Londos raises the flag of the revolution in Aegio and heads towards Patras
23 Fighters from Messini and Mani capture Kalamata
23 The Messinian Senate sends a proclamation “to the European courts”
23 A. Londos declares the Revolution in Vostitsa (Aegio)
25 Germanos III of Old Patras gives a blessing for the Revolution near Agios Georgios church in Patras(now Ag. Georgiou Square) and local chieftains take their oaths
25 The Achaean Directorate (Patras) is established
25 The Messinian Senate (Kalamata) is established
The capture of Kalamata by the Greek revolutionaries (23/3/1821) was followed by the establishment of the Messinian Senate, one of the first political–military bodies of the Greek Liberation Struggle, which later prevailed under the name ‘Messinian Parliament’. Before the formation of the Senate, P. Mavromichalis, its subsequent president, sent a proclamation “to the European courts” (23/3/1821), in which he clearly stated the circumstances leading to the Greeks’ revolt, and requested the Europeans’ moral and material support. In addition, Mavromichalis drafted a proclamation to the Americans, which, via A. Korais, was sent to philhellene professor Edward Everett, and was published in American newspapers. The establishment of the Senate constituted the first attempt to unite local forces with the goal of gaining political control of the Revolution.
26 G. Sisinis declares the Revolution in the region of Gastouni and attacks Chlemoutsi
26 C. Vilaetis begins the liberation Struggle in Pyrgos, Ilia
26 G. Panos and P. Botasis start the Revolution is Spetses
27 D. Xiros, or ‘Panourgias’, declares the Revolution in Salona (Amfissa)
27 Battle in the narrows of Agios Athanasios near Karytainaina
27-31 The Revolution spreads in the Peloponnese and eastern Central Greece (Mystras, Argos, Nafplio, Monemvasia, Livadia, Lidoriki, Atalandi)
31 Christians are slaughtered in Smyrna
April 1821  
3 The Sultan hears of the Revolution in the Peloponnese
3 A battle takes place in Pyrgos, Ilia, between Turkish Albanians of Lala and Ilian fighters
3 Ottoman forces arrive in Patras, led by Yussuf Pasha
4-5 Christian populations in Constantinople suffer atrocities by the Ottomans
8 I. Dyovouniotis revolts in Zitouni (Lamia)
10 Patriarch Gregory V is executed by hanging in Constantinople
10, 12 Revolutionary actions take place in Psara and Spetses
14 Battle at Levidi, Arkadia
15 Antonis Economou declares the Revolution in Hydra
15 Moustafa Bey’s troops loot Vostitsa (Aegio)
15 Battle of Vovoda (Mavriki), Aigialeia
16 Battle of Agoulinitsa
17 Peloponnesian community leaders and clergymen are imprisoned in Tripolitsa
17 The revolution is declared in Vathy, Samos
18 Battle of Patratziki (Ypati)
22 Battle of Alamana – A. Diakos is captured
24 A. Diakos is executed
24 The Turks of Lala attack Agoulinitsa, Ilia

First siege of the Acropolis

Ever since the beginning of their Struggle for liberation, the primary concern of the Greek revolutionaries was the occupation of fortresses throughout Greece. The attempt to occupy the Acropolis of Athens can be understood in this context, since its capture would allow Greeks to control the entire Attica region. This pursuit constituted a constant and agonising “bras de fer” between Ottomans and Greeks, a military operation with no apparent end, full of twists and turns, as it leaned sometimes in favour of one side and sometimes of the other. In this way, Athens gradually became the centre of military operations in eastern Central Greece, a region which, ultimately, neither opposing force managed to completely and irrevocably dominate until the end of the hostilities. The first revolutionary actions in the region were carried out in late April by local chieftains, such as M. Vassiliou from Chasia, T. Skourtaniotis from Dervenochoria, and G. Davaris from Mesogaia (Liopesi), who, at the same time, with approximately 600 casually armed men, marched into Athens and occupied it. To protect themselves, the Ottomans of the city were forced to take refuge in the Acropolis. Soon, however, Ottoman troops —led by Omer Vryonis and Omer Bey— arrived in Attica, reinforced the besieged with military equipment and food, and disbanded the Greek camp.
  M. Vassiliou captures Athens
26 L. Logothetis spreads the Revolution throughout Samos
  The Revolution starts in Karpathos, Chalki, Tilos, Nisyros, Leros, Astypalaia, and Kalymnos
May 1821  
1 The revolutionary forces of the Filiki Eteria are defeated in Galatsi, Moldo–Wallachia
1 T. Negris arrives in Greece
2 Battle at Lantzoi, a village in Ilia
3 Ottoman forces land in Cyprus; Christians are slaughtered
4-6 Christians of Constantinople suffer atrocities by the Ottomans
4, 7 The Revolution is declared in Magnesia (Trikeri, Pelion)
8 Revolutionary actions take place in Karlovassi, Patmos, and Xirochori in Evia

Battle at the Gravia inn

After defeating the Greeks in Alamana (22/4/1821), Omer Vryonis decided to campaign in the Peloponnese. At Gravia, in Fokida, he came across a group of 120 men led by O. Androutsos, who had been fortified in an old inn (khan). The Ottomans surrounded the area, asking Androutsos to surrender. Following his refusal, the Ottoman forces attacked the inn several times. However, the significant casualties suffered by the enemy during the attacks —330 dead and 800 wounded— forced Omer Vryonis to order a temporary retreat. Realising that the Ottomans would soon regroup and blow up the building, the besieged fled secretly, passing through the enemy lines. Following his defeat in Gravia, Vryonis temporarily halted his campaign and set up camp in Evia, to await the forces of Köse Mehmet. The battle at Gravia had a significant effect on the outcome of the Struggle for Liberation, as it prevented the descent of the Ottoman forces to Morias, where the Revolution had not yet been established.
  Voluntary troops arrive in Glarentza, Ilia
10 Battle at Lantzoi, Ilia
10 The Revolution is declared in Andros, Thassos, and Kerasova in Agrafa
12-13 Battle at Valtetsi
15 M. Liakopoulos revolts in Kassandra, Chalkidiki
17 Battle in the narrows of Katsaros and death of chieftain G. Giannias
18 Battle at Doliana, Kynouria
18 Battle at Vervaina, Kynouria
18 E. Papas incites revolutionary action in Polygyros, Chalkidiki
20 The Revolution starts in Messolonghi and Anatolikon (Aetoliko)
21 A Greek naval squadron reaches Rio, Patras
21 Uprising in Sfakia
22 Revolutionary actions in Xiromero, Akarnania
24 Nafpaktos is besieged
25 G. Varnakiotis declares the Revolution in Xiromero
26 The Kaltezes Assembly takes place and the Peloponnesian Senate is established
26-28 G. Tsogas conquers Vonitsa
27 The burning of the Ottoman ship “Behtas Kaptan’’
  The Revolution is suppressed in Pelion
28 Vrachori (Agrinio) is besieged
29 A. Iskos declares the revolutionary Struggle in Valtos
29-30 Lala, in Ilia, is besieged
29-30 Battles at Pournari, Mnima of Boutini, Bastira, and Poussi between Greeks and residents of Lala
29 Revolutionary actions in Sithonia, Chalkidiki
30 Publication of the Peloponnesian Senate Circular
June 2021  
1 Battle against the armed forces of Lala at Goumero, Ilia
1 Fortification works begin in Messolonghi
6 The Greeks raid the fortress of Antirrio without success; chieftain D. Chormovas dies
7 Battle of Dragashani
8 D. Ypsilantis, representing the Filiki Eteria, arrives in the Peloponnese
9 Battle at Lala, Ilia
9 Vrachori (Agrinio) Ottomans surrender to G. Varnakiotis
10 Omer Vryoni Pasha occupies Livadia
13 Battle at Poussi, Ilia
14 Start of the Revolution in Crete
14 Arrest and imprisonment of A. Ypsilantis in Austria
16 Start of the siege of Zapantio (Megali Chora)
17 Battle at Prut river and death of Karpenisiotis
18 Battle at Makrynoros
18 Battle at Peta, Arta
18 Battle at Afti, near Karvasaras (Amfilochia)
19 I. Kolettis and G. Ragos declare the Revolution in Epirus
July 2021  
3 Battle at Mavra Vouna, Kalavryta
D. Ypsilantis is appointed Commander in Chief in Moreas
6 Delivery of a Russian ultimatum to the Sublime Porte
11 Massacres of Christian populations in Kos
12-13 Battles at Pournarokastro and Eglykada, Patras
14 Severance of diplomatic relations between Russia and the Ottoman Empire
15 Battle at Peta, Arta
16 Battle in the village of Saravali, Patras
20 Omer Vryoni Pasha and Omer Bey of Karystos capture Athens
20 Arrival of A. Mavrokordatos in Messolonghi
23 The castle of Monemvasia is surrendered to the Greek troops
24-25 C. Perraivos captures Parga
28 The enemy re–captures Parga Arrival of foreign–born personalities in the revolted Greek territory
August 2021  
2 Battle near Girokomio Monastery, Patras
3 Establishment of philhellenic committees in Germany
7-9 Battles in the village of Romanos of Patras and at Linon of Houssein Aga
10 Battle at Grana
10 The handwritten newspaper Aetoliki is published in Messolonghi
26 Battle at Vassilika, in Lokrida
September 2021  
4 Assassination of P. Karatzas in the monastery of Oblos
6 The Peloponnesians who were held hostage in Tripolitsa are released from prison
7 Arrival of the Ottoman fleet in Patras
8 Death of Philaretos, Bishop of Oleni, in Tripolitsa
9 Siege of Sekos Monastery (Moldavia)
9 Battle in Saravali village, Patras
9 Battle at Pournarokastro, Patras
12 The Ottoman fleet sails towards Vostitsa, under the command of Kara–Ali Bey and Ismail Gibraltar Pasha
19 Philhellene volunteers arrive in the Greek territory
23 Fall of Tripolitsa
23 G. Olympios dies at Sekos monastery
23 The fleet of Galaxidi is burned down in Galaxidi
  Suppression of the Revolution in the Danubian Principalities The Ottoman forces burn down Vostitsa
30 Naval battle at Katakolo, Ilia
October 2021  
21 The Greek forces capture the city of Patras, but not its castle Yusuf Pasha re–captures Patras
25 M. Komninos Afentoulis is appointed Governor–General of Crete
30 The Revolution is suppressed in Kassandra, Chalkidiki
November 2021  
4 Battle at Chalandri
4 Second siege of Athens by the Greek forces
4 Establishment of the Provisional Senate of Western Greece
9 Senate of Western Continental Greece
13 Souliotes capture Arta
15 Assembly at Salona
17 Establishment of the Areopagus (eastern Central Greece) The handwritten newspaper Acheloos is published in Vrachori
December 2021  
1 D. Ypsilatis is appointed President of the Peloponnesian Senate
3-4 Unsuccessful raid to capture Nauplion
3-4 Unsuccessful actions to capture the Acropolis of Athens
15 The Ottomans capture Mount Athos and establish a guard
20 The First National Assembly (Piada of Epidaurus) commences
27 Approval of the Peloponnesian Senate


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